The percentage of a country's population that feels religion plays an important role in their lives (x-axis) is negatively correlated with the GDP per capita (Y-axis, in log-scale):
Here are the heatmaps, first for religion:
and per capita GDP (PPP):
From the heat maps above, several countries in Africa and Asia stand out as having low per capita GDP and high importance of religion, while all of Scandinavia and Australia stand out as places with high per capita GDP and low importance of religion. The US is somewhat of an outlier with with highest per capita GDP in the world of ~$35k and about 65% of the population reporting that religion plays an important role in their lives.
For completeness sake, here is the heat map for life satisfaction, or long-term happiness:
Combining data on religion and GDP with data with data on long term happiness, we get roughly the following picture:
- Long term happiness correlates positively with per capita GDP.
- Long term happiness correlates negatively with importance of religion.
- Importance of religion correlates negatively with per capita GDP.
My guess is that the causal structure between the 3 variables: Religion (R), Happiness (H) and per capita GDP is the following:
When per capita GDP is high, the basic needs of life are met, people are relatively comfortable, and therefore long term happiness is high, but for the same reason, very few people feel compelled to ask fundamental questions of the type that people turn to religion for. This has the effect of creating a negative correlation between Religion and Happiness. In the causal structure above, religion and happiness are related, but given per capita GDP, they are independent.